Kultobe–Yasi–Turkestan city in different historical periods was the center of economic, political and confession interests of many countries and beginning from the Kangyu period to Kazakh Khanate. The first written description of the Kultobe settlement in some publications is known as “Yasi” (Ason) can be found in Armenian tsar Getum I manuscripts. He traveled to Orda of the great Mongolian khan Mengu through the southern Kazakhstan regions. The origin city development reconstruction history began with the introduction into scientific results circulation of targeted archaeological research.
The first archeological research of the Kultobe settlement started in 1973 by Turkestan archeological group of the Institute of History and Archeology named after C. C. Valikhanov, Science Academy of Kazakh SSR under supervision of T. N. Senigova, candidate of historical science.
At this operational season, on the western part of Kultobe hill an excavation was laid and showed a number of residential complexes dated by the XVIII–XIX centuries.
In 1980–1982, Turkestan archeological group of the Institute of History and Archeology named after C. C. Valikhanov, Science Academy of Kazakh SSR under supervision of Y. A. Smagulov continued work on the Kultobe settlement.
In operational season, 70 sq. m. excavation was laid and it opened the entire thickness of the cultural layers from Kultobe settlement to mainland. It was the beginning of the huge prospective research.
The next step of archeological research of the Kultobe settlement continued only in 2010 under the supervision of Y. A. Smagulov, the candidate of historical science.
The works was part of the program “Cultural and historical centers of ancient and medieval Kazakhstan” under the Institute of Archeology named after A. K. Margulan. In this program was a subject to study the development genesis of the ancient Kultobe settlement citadel – ancient Yasi.
The next perspective step research of the Kultobe settlement was continued by Turkestan archaeological expedition in 2011–2015 under the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Institute of Archeology named after A. K. Margulan. The head is E. A. Smagulov. During research, the ancient citadel Yasi was discovered. It was forerunner of Turkestan. The first architectural building where Turkestan is situated was a high christcross castle which during the I–III centuries was the center of the ancient citadel.
The “Kultobe Settlement” project of the “Kazakh Research Institute of Culture” LLP under the supervision of A. A. Yerzhigitova is depth intense research. During the project, research of the ancient settlement cultural layers was continued. The material shows old historical origins of religios, fortification and other constructions of ancient Turkestan.
In 2019, the “Kazakh Research Institute of Culture” LLP under the supervision of A. R. Khazbulatov, doctor of philosophy, associate professor, started the “Restoration of historical sites of the Kultobe settlement” project. The project works with the financial support of Eurasian Resources Group (ERG).
The main purpose of this project is to develop a scientific concept for a unique “Kultobe Settlement” open-air archaeological park.
This project is an innovation research level to study local historical and cultural heritage and is a synthesis of the original research methodology and practical methodology of archaeological studies, excavations, conservation, restorations and 3D reconstructions.